Plant-tc Monthly Archive - April 2000

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Re: light & somatic embryogenesis

See Also,  somatic
embryo induction in eggplant is reported to have an absolute requirement
for light (Gleddie et al, 1983). In contrast, somatic embryo induction of
poplar (Michler and Bauer, 1991)  and Podophyllum (Arumugan and Bhojwani,
1990) have an absolute requirement for darkness.   In Norway spruce,
embryogenesis was reported to be possible only in complete darkness if
ammonium is present in the medium.  The removal of ammonium was necessary
before embryogenesis is possible in the light. (Verhagen and Wann, 1989).
Red light enhanced while blue light decreased the induction of date palm
(Calero, 1989) somatic embryos.  Green light, red light, or darkness were
equally effective, while blue light or white light at higher intensities
were inhibitory for induction of carrot somatic embryos (Micheler and
Lineberger, 1987).   Darkness, or white light from fluorescent tubes (75 uE
m-2s-1), tended to lower somatic embryogenesis of soybean, while lower
light intensities (10 uE m-2s-1), or light provided by Grolux® fluorescent
tubes, which provide more light in the red spectrum, resulted in higher
frequencies of embryogenesis (Lazzeri et al, 1987).

For alfalfa, light above 75 uE blocked development at globular stage
(Anandarajah and McKersie, 1992), while for the related Medicago
truncatula, embryos induced in thlight did not convert (Nolan and Rose, 1998).

For Albizzia, greater embryo formation in the light than in the dark.  Red 
light promoted embryogenesis, far-red light inhibited it (Baweja et al, 1995)

Dark conditions were reported to be better for Lilium.  (Pelkonen and
Kauppi, 1999)

Gleddie, S., Keller, W., and Setterfield, G., Somatic embryogenesis and
plant regeneration from leaf explants and cell suspensions of Solanum
melongena (eggplant),  Can. J. Bot., 61,  656, 1983.

Michler, C.H. and Bauer, E.O., High frequency somatic embryogenesis from
leaf tissue of Populus spp,  Plant Sci., 77,  111, 1991.

Arumugan, N. and Bhojwani, S.S., Somatic embryogenesis in tissue cultures
of Podophyllum hexandrum,  Can. J. Bot., 68,  487, 1990.

Verhagen, S.A. and Wann, S.R., Norway spruce somatic
embryogenesis:  high_frequency initiation from light_cultured mature
embryos,  Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 16,  103, 1989.

Calero, N., Actions de radiations rouges et bleues sur l'embryogenèse
somatique du Palmier dattier (Phoenix dactylifera L.) en culture in vitro
et sur sa teneur en leucoanthocyanes,  C.R.Soc.Biol., 183,  307, 1989.

Michler, C.H. and Lineberger, R.D., Effects of light on somatic embryo
development and abscisic levels in carrot suspension cultures,  Plant Cell 
Tissue Organ Cult., 11,  189, 1987.

Lazzeri, P.A., Hildebrand, D.F., and Collins, G.B., Soybean somatic
embryogenesis:  effects of nutritional, physical and chemical
factors,  Plant Mol. Biol. Rep., 10,  209, 1987.

Anandarajah, K. and McKersie, B. D. (1992). Influence of plating density,
sucrose and light during development on the germination and vigour of
Medicago sativa L. somatic embryos after desiccation. Seed Sci Res 2:133-140.
Notes: Light above 75 uE blocked development at globular stage.  Note that
optimum sucrose is about 5% and that there is an optimum number of embryos
per plate.

Nolan, K. E. and Rose, R. J. (1998). Plant regeneration from cultured
Medicago truncatula with particular reference to abscisic acid and light
treatments. Am J Bot  46:151-160.

Baweja, K., Khurana, J. P., and Gharyal-Khurana, P. (1995). Influence of
light on somatic embryogenesis in hypocotyls of Albizzia lebbeck. Curr Sci

Pelkonnen V.-P. and Kauppi, A. (1999). The effect of light and auxins on
the regeneration of lily (Lilium regale Wil.) cells by somatic
embryogenesis and organogenesis. Israel J Plant Sci 160:483-490.

At 11:50 AM 4/17/00 +0300, you wrote:
>Hello all.
>can anyone give any leads or references on effects of illumination on
>somatic embryogenesis?
>Many thanks.
>Dr. Elliott Birnbaum
>Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University
>Sede Boker campus, 84990 Israel
>Office: +972-7-6596745,  Fax: +972-7-6596742

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